Nikereact.org – In everyday life we cannot be separated from the name color. Where everything we see we can describe through a color that we have learned since childhood. However, especially in the world of design, this color element becomes very important.
In a design in choosing the right and suitable color, there is one guideline that is generally used by a designer, namely, color theory or what is also known as color theory. Learn more about color theory in the information below.
Understanding Color Theory
Color theory or color theory according to the Interaction Design Foundation is defined as a guideline used by designers in conveying a message to its users through color.
In general, a color can be seen from different perceptions in each person. Where there are some people who like certain colors and also don’t like some colors.
However, the thing that business owners or entrepreneurs must realize is that a color can play an important role in building a brand or brand that they have.
According to 99Designs also expressed their opinion on how someone decides whether they like a product or not in 90 seconds or even less than that number.
As many as 90% of the decisions they make are largely influenced by the color alone, and not other aspects of the product.
Based on this, we can see the importance of choosing a graphic designer who is able to choose colors well and implement existing color theory.
Color Theory According to Experts
Talking about color, there are several color theories that must be known which are stated by several experts as follows.
1. Sir Isaac Newton’s Theory
The color theory was first proposed by Sir Isaac Newton. He has conducted experiments and came to a conclusion that if you solve the color spectrum produced by sunlight, you will find a variety of different colors.
This color itself consists of red, orange, yellow, blue, and purple. The various colors he expresses can also be seen in the rainbow.
2. Brewster’s Theory
The second color theory is by Brewster which was first expressed in 1831. In this theory, he simplified the existing colors into four color groups consisting of primary, secondary, tertiary, and neutral colors.
The color groups are arranged in a brewster color circle which explains the theory of complementary, complementary split, triad, and tetrad.
Brewster’s theory, also known as the color circle, is still widely used today, especially in the world of art.
3. Munsell’s theory
The third color theory was by Munsell, which was put forward in 1858. In his theory, he investigated color with color standards for physical and psychological aspects.
The difference between this theory and the two previous theories, Munsell stated that the main colors consist of red, yellow, green, blue and orange. And while the secondary colors themselves consist of orange, light green, dark green, dark blue and indigo.
The Importance of Color Theory
The color aspect is one of the important components when we create a product, logo, or certain design to describe something.
Color according to Design and Promote is also used to create ideas, express a message, grow people’s interest, and arouse emotions from users.
Therefore, color theory is important to be used as one of the guidelines that must be held and implemented by a designer.
99Designs also revealed that color theory also plays an important role in branding, marketing, and sales of a product.
By knowing the color theory related to the color itself and the color scheme, you can also make good decisions to build an appropriate and effective brand image through design.
Color Theory and the Color Wheel
In history, we can see in 1666 where Sir Isaac Newton invented the color wheel. Then, in the color wheel, he categorizes colors into three groups, which are as follows.
First, according to Hubspot, primary colors are defined as colors that cannot be created by combining two or more colors together. In other words, primary colors are basic colors.
Some examples of primary colors, namely red, yellow, and blue.
Second, in contrast to primary colors, secondary colors can be produced using a combination of two or three primary colors listed above.
Here are some examples of secondary colors, namely:
- The orange color is the result of a combination of red and yellow.
- Purple is the result of a combination of red and blue.
- Green is the result of a combination of yellow and blue.
Third, tertiary colors themselves are much more complicated when compared to primary and secondary colors. This is because tertiary colors are the result of a mixture of primary and secondary colors.
To be able to understand tertiary colors well, must first understand all the components that exist in other colors.
This is because all existing primary colors cannot necessarily be combined with secondary colors, and vice versa where existing secondary colors cannot necessarily be combined with primary colors.
Here are some examples of tertiary colors, namely:
- Magenta is the result of a combination of red, which is the primary color, and purple, which is the secondary color.
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Three Primary Colors
As we already know, primary colors are divided into three colors consisting of red, yellow, and blue, each of which has its own meaning. Check out the following information.
First, the color red is often associated with the color of fire, violence, war, love, and passion.
According to Smashing Magazine, the color red itself has a physical effect on a person, which can increase blood pressure, respiratory rate, and human metabolism.
In the western world, the color red also has different associations. As is the case in China, where red is depicted as the color of prosperity and happiness.
In addition, the color red can also be used to attract good luck. As is depicted in other eastern cultures, where the color red is worn by the bride on their wedding day.
Second, yellow is a color that is often associated with warmth, light, and energy. This primary color can also be associated as a symbol of happiness as well as sunshine.
Yellow can also be interpreted as hope. Where we can see this through several countries that use or pin yellow ribbons on people who go to war.
Yellow can also be associated with danger although not as strongly as red. In some other countries, the color yellow also has a different connotation or meaning.
For example, in Egypt, the color yellow is interpreted or has the meaning of mourning. While in Japan, yellow is depicted as a symbol of courage.
Third, the color blue is often associated as a symbol of sadness in English. This primary color is also widely used to describe or represent the nature of calm and responsibility.
Blue itself can also be associated with a message of peace and has spiritual and religious connotations that exist in various cultures.
Like the Virgin Mary in the picture wearing a blue robe.
In the design itself, the use of blue in general can have a big impact on the perception or view of a design. Where the use of light blue can be interpreted to have a relaxing and calming meaning.
While the bright blue color has a meaning to provide energy and a refreshing feeling. And the dark blue color that is often used for website creation and corporate design illustrates strength and reliability.
For who want to use, create, and modify colors in images, they can learn it through the book Blending Colors and Pixel Correction by Feri Sulianta below.
With so many colors available, it can be divided into several parts which are known as the Prang System color system. It is also often referred to as color attribute and was proposed by Louis Prang in 1876 which is divided into three, namely:
First, hue which is a term used to indicate the name of a color, for example, red, blue, green, and so on.
Second, the value which is the second dimension or is used to explain the lightness or darkness of a color. For example, there are color levels from white to black.
3. Saturation or Intensity
Third, saturation or intensity, which is also often referred to as chroma, is a dimension that has a relationship with the brightness or gloom of a color.
The color attributes described above are also often found in the photo editing process and so on. Learn more about using Adobe Photoshop CS6, Picture and Photo Effects, and many more through the book by Wahana Computer below.
In addition to color theory and the color wheel, there are also color schemes that are also important in their implementation into a product or marketing material. This color scheme was developed by the designer through the existing color wheel.
The following is the distribution of the color schemes reported in Usability Geek which are divided into several categories as follows.
The first color scheme is monochrome, which generally uses the same hue variations. This monochrome scheme is very simple and can produce a look that gives an elegant impression.
The second color scheme is analog, which uses a combination of primary and secondary colors. In general, this analog scheme is very calming and gives the impression of being comfortable to use.
From a business perspective, analog schemes are not only pleasing to the eye, but can also invite existing consumers to take action, such as inviting them to buy the products and services they offer.
The third color scheme is complementary, which uses opposite colors on the color wheel, such as red and green.
In general, this complementary scheme will provide a very strong contract so that it can be clearly seen.
The fourth color scheme is triadic, which uses three colors that are spread evenly across the color wheel. The colors used may not be bright colors, but with the right color scheme they can maintain high contrast.
Hot Colors and Cool Colors
In the color circle, both primary colors and tertiary colors can also be grouped into two large groups consisting of hot color groups and cold color groups.
The hot color group starts from greenish yellow to red. While the cold color group starts from reddish purple to green.
Hot colors can produce a sensation of heat as well as closeness. While cold colors give the opposite impression, namely, a cold and distant sensation.
A work of art can be said to have a harmonious color composition if the various colors in the work can produce a warm-medium effect.
Relationship Between Colors
1. Complementary contrast
The relationship between the first colors is complementary contrast, which is a combination of two colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel.
Two colors that are in complementary contrasting positions alone can produce the strongest contrasting relationship. For example, the color orange with blue.
2. Complementary split contrast
The relationship between the second color is a complementary split contrast which is a combination of two colors that are slightly opposite each other.
An example of this split complement contrast is orange which has a split complement relationship with a bluish green color.
3. Complementary triad contrast
The relationship between the third color is a complementary triad contrast which is a combination of the three colors on the color circle and forms an equilateral triangle and has an angle of 60 degrees.
4. Complementary tetrad contrast
The relationship between the fourth color is a complementary tetrad contrast or also often referred to as a complementary double which is a combination of four colors that form a rectangular shape on the color circle and has an angle of 90 degrees.
Applications in Daily Life
After understands the basic theories of color, the thing we can do next is apply them or implement them in everyday life.
Just like what we can do every day, namely by making sure the colors of the clothes we use and choose look right with each other. To do this yourself, can see the existing color wheel when choosing clothes to use or alternatively, can print the color wheel near the wardrobe so that it will be easier for you when choosing clothes.
There are general rules that you can follow when choosing clothes, which are to avoid using more than three colors and consider the right time to use clothes with hot colors and cold colors.
Criteria in Selection of Design Colors
In choosing your own color, there are several criteria in it, see the following information.
- First, display colors that have a dark background or background.
- Second, choose a bright color for foreground such as white, green, and so on.
- Third, avoid using brown or green in the background.
- Fourth, brightness and combining existing colors in the foreground and background contrast.
- Fifth, using existing colors to suit your needs, the existing designs are made in b/w form and adding other colors according to your needs.
- Sixth, using colors that can attract the user’s attention, communicate in a directed manner, identify statuses, and establish relationships between existing elements.
- Seventh, avoiding the use of color in work that has a non-task nature, on a screen that mostly consists of text, color can help when the user is required to find or distinguish certain sections.
Things to Pay Attention to in the Use of Design Colors
- First, color blindness or color defects.
- Second, the monitor is monochrome or can only recognize one color.
- Third, the use of extra code in improving the appearance of the interface.
- Fourth, have consistency in the use of a color.
- Fifth, be able to limit the color coding to eight colors or even better use four colors.
- Sixth, using b/w or gray colors for the interface.
- Seventh, to show diversity in the parts on the screen.
- Eighth, designers also often use work screens by using four to five screens.