Definition of Administration: Purpose, Characteristics, Functions, Types to Complete Working Methods

Definition of Administration Purpose, Characteristics, Functions, Types to Complete Working Methods¬†–¬†Understanding Administration in a broad understanding can be interpreted as a cooperative activity. However, if administration is associated with various fields and other matters, such as organization, management, policy, human relations, and so on. So administration can have another meaning.

Administration itself is basically a science that developed in the early 19th century. With the development of the times and science, administration is also developing so that in the end it is widely applied to meet the needs of various countries in the world.

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In its use, administration is needed by a company or institution to be able to stand and continue to grow by making resources and good management.

In a company, every employee or staff has rights and obligations that are directly related to his work. Administration is one part of managing the company so that it can be optimal.

Today, the notion of administration is a term that is very commonly used in the world of work. Administration is a term that is synonymous with various jobs such as data collection, recording, correspondence, and many more.

These reasons make administration indispensable for companies, institutions, and agencies. Someone who has the responsibility for managing the administration is usually called an administrator or administrative staff.

In its application in everyday life, administration has provided many benefits, such as optimizing the work system and even being very effective in improving the quality of education.

The existence of good administration can be one way to create a good and easier work system, both informal and non-formal.

In addition, administration also makes it easier for work related to data management. Administration has proven to be able to create an appropriate and easier management system.

This article will discuss the ins and outs of administration. Starting from the understanding of administration, administrative objectives, administrative characteristics, administrative functions, types of administration, to the workings of administration. Let’s see more!

A. Definition of Administration

Definition of Administration Purpose, Characteristics, Functions, Types to Complete Working Methods

Administration itself was first used in Greek, namely administrare or an activity to provide services and assistance. In her work entitled Introduction to Administrative Sciences published in 2020, Alemina Henuk-Kacaribu said that administration can be defined as an activity, ranging from regulation to management of various things to realize common goals.

In general, the meaning of administration can be done if it is used by more than one person, this is because administration connects work between two or more people so that they can work together.

Understanding Administration is basically an activity or form of business that has a strong relationship with many policy settings, one of which is to achieve the targets of a company or organization.

Therefore, administration has a vital role for various aspects and activities for a company or organization to survive and continue to grow.

The definition of administration can be understood in a narrow sense and in a broad sense:

1. Understanding administration in a narrow sense

According to Hendi Haryadi in his book entitled Office Administration for Managers & Staff (2009), the notion of administration is defined as an activity of systematically compiling and recording data and information.

The purpose of administration in its own narrow sense is to provide information and at the same time facilitate these activities to retrieve information. Understanding Administration in a narrow sense can also be said as a form of administration of a company or organization.

2. Understanding administration in a broad sense

In a broad sense, the notion of administration can be understood as a cooperative activity carried out by a group of people. The cooperative activities are determined based on the division of labor that has been structured to achieve common goals effectively and efficiently.

B. Administrative Purpose

After knowing about the meaning of administration, in this section we will discuss in depth what the purpose of administration is. As explained earlier that administration is needed by every organization or company.

Administration is very helpful for a company or organization in planning to developing activities in an effort to achieve certain goals.

The following are four administrative objectives that need to be considered, including:

1. Develop a Business Program

The first administrative objective is to develop a business program. In preparing this business program, every company or organization always needs information or data as a reference.

The way to get information or data is usually obtained through an administrative activity. Administrative activities have proven to be easier to get the various information or data needed. Therefore, one of the reasons an administrative process must be applied systematically.

2. Evaluation of Organizational Activities

The second administrative objective is the evaluation of the organization’s activities. After compiling a business program, the administrative system will greatly facilitate an organization or company to evaluate organizational activities.

One form of evaluation of activities carried out by companies or organizations is usually based on the results of information and data that have been found. Of course, this evaluation makes the organization or company better understand the various potentials and obstacles during the implementation of the program.

3. Monitoring Administrative Activities

The third administrative objective is to monitor administrative activities. Monitoring is important because the administrative system is an activity related to many things.

Therefore, the implementation of administrative activities must be carried out systematically and regularly. An administrative system that is successfully implemented will eventually make a company or organization more organized. For example, monitoring an activity related to the questions of what, how, where, when and why.

4. Ensuring Security for Business Activities

The fourth administrative objective is to ensure security for business activities. In the administrative system, security is one of the things needed by every company or organization when conducting business activities.

Therefore, companies or organizations need to have good administration so that monitoring of all activities can be carried out optimally. Not only that, the administrative process will make every activity and transaction recorded in detail and clearly.

C. Administrative Characteristics

After knowing about the purpose and understanding of administration, the following are the characteristics of administration based on the Basics of Entrepreneurship (2019) by Choms Gary Ganda Tua Sibarani, et al. Administrative characteristics are:

1. Consists of a group of people

First, administration cannot be carried out by one person alone. Administration requires a group of people to work together. Therefore, the most important characteristic of administration is that it consists of a collection of people who have the same goal.

2. Cooperating

Second, we know for ourselves that administration needs to be carried out by working together in realizing a common goal. Therefore, cooperation is a feature that must exist so that the administrative system can run optimally.

3. Have a goal to achieve

Third, one of the reasons for the existence of administration is an effort to achieve a certain goal. Therefore, administration is needed to make a group of people work together and strive towards the same direction, namely a common goal.

4. There is a business activity process

Fourth, an administrative system needs to have certain business activity processes. The process of business activities is an important characteristic of an administration. This process can be understood as a series of business activities to create cooperation to achieve common goals.

5. Guidance, leadership and supervision activities

Fifth, the last administrative characteristic is guidance, leadership, and supervision activities. These three things need to be implemented to make a company or organization able to achieve its goals.

D. Administration Function

As one of the most important parts of a company or organization, administration has several important functions that must be carried out, including:

1. Planning or Planning

The first administrative function is planning. Planning is one activity that really requires an administrative activity. The intended administrative activities are such as collecting data, processing data, compiling plans, and so on.

2. Organizing or Composing

The second administrative function is preparation. Administration is needed by a company or organization in order to make arrangements to achieve goals.

The arrangements that need to be made are, for example, efforts to build every communication and relationship between members or employees to be easy to understand.

3. Coordinating or coordinating

The third administrative function is to coordinate. In an effort to achieve a certain goal, a company or organization needs to make arrangements for each of its parts.

Therefore, coordinating is carried out so that the company’s activities can run smoothly and well, without clashes, vacancies and even chaos. The existence of good coordination is a sign that a company or organization is on the right track to achieve its goals.

4. Reporting or Reports

The fourth administrative function is reporting. Reporting is an administrative activity to convey developments, movements to the results of activities or programs carried out.

The report itself covers all elements of the company, both employees and members to their superiors in writing. This report will be one of the assessments carried out on employee performance based on their position and duties.

5. Budgeting or Budgeting

The fifth administrative function is budgeting. Making a budget itself is one of the most important and mandatory things in a company or organization. Budgeting is needed to always improve performance.

Not only that, the budget can also be used by the company or organization to achieve its goals during the development period. Some collaborations that require a budget are, for example, advertising and so on.

6. Staffing or Positioning

The sixth administrative function is positioning. Staffing or positioning is a function related to the quality of human resources in a company. Staffing itself usually includes the recruitment of experts, development and equipment requirements.

7. Directing or Guidance

The last administrative function is directing or guidance. Guidance itself is an interaction activity carried out by members of an organization or company in the form of guidance, orders to suggestions.

Guidance is needed so that the performance of members and employees can run well so that they are able to achieve the specified goals.

E. Types of Administration

After knowing various things about administration, the following are the types of administration that are commonly needed.

1. Office administration

Office administration is a type of administration that has activities such as financial planning, recording, distribution of goods, and personnel.

2. State administration

State administration is one type of administration that has activities related to the public interest or the general public, such as public policy, ethics, and so on.

3. Financial administration

Financial administration is one type of administration whose activities are related to finance. The main task of this type of administration is to make financial reports.

4. Education administration

Educational administration is administration whose activities have activities in regulating the field of education. Examples of activities of this type of administration are planning, directing, and supervising education.

5. Commercial administration

Commercial administration is a type of administration whose activities consist of planning and supervising all commercial matters. This administration is usually directly coordinated by managers within a company or business.

Discussing commerce, of course, one of the purposes of this type of administration is to gain economic profit.

F. How Administration Works

After knowing about the meaning of administration and various related matters in it, in this section we will focus on discussing the workings of the administration itself.

As previously explained, the meaning of administration and its functions in a company or organization is carried out by a person called an administrator or administrative staff.

What you need to know is that administrative staff is one unit that is able to provide support for various operational activities of a company or organization.

Meanwhile, the administrative staff has the main task, namely activities closely related to correspondence, document storage and arrangement, data entry and assisting units that need data. The administrative staff will later make the task into a report that will be submitted to the management.

The way the administration works itself is closely related to the various tasks of the administrative staff in an organization or company. In general, the seven administrative ways of working, including:

1. Coordinate with secretaries or administrative staff from other divisions when there are joint meetings or other activities.

2. Collecting and compiling documents.

3. Prepare accommodation and tickets for work visits outside the office.

4. Ensure supplies of office stationery.

5. Create and prepare agenda arrangements for meetings or other office events.

6. Organize, open and distribute incoming correspondence to the company in the form of letters or emails.

7. Prepare invoices, notes, reports, letters and other documents using data processing applications, databases, worksheets or presentations.

Based on the explanation above, it can be understood that administration in a company or organization is a very important activity. If there is no administration, there is the potential for a company or organization not to have good management or regulation of activities, thus hampering its development.

Therefore, the application of good administration can lead a company or organization to remain standing and continue to develop until it can achieve its goals.

In this article, we know that the meaning of administration is not only about correspondence or taking notes. Understanding Administration includes many things, ranging from planning, compiling, coordinating, making reports, compiling budgets to providing direction or guidance to every employee or member of the company.

Therefore, every company should have good administration. This is also related to the competencies possessed by the administrative staff themselves.

Proper management and administrative arrangements will ultimately make the company’s goals easier to achieve. Not only that, the organization or company will also be able to compete in the midst of the times and increasingly fierce competition.

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