Nikereact.org – Romanticism is a genre of art that seeks to display a beautiful and fantastic painting. Generally, Romanticism will describe something romantic, such as history, tragedy, or natural scenery and presents a fantastic painting. This genre of art was very well known throughout the world in the 18th century to the 19th century and became an important part of the culture of European society and Western society.
To understand more deeply about the flow of Romanticism, in this article we will discuss it more deeply. Check out the information below.
Definition of Romanticism
Romanticism is a movement or flow of art that focuses a work on emotions and also noble achievements in the past and natural beauty that tends to be dramatic and theatrical. The flow of Romanticism focuses on personal emotions that are quite strong as an authentic source of aesthetic experience and awe experienced in the face of a history or great experience as well as the aesthetic beauty of nature.
The term Roman has the meaning of human greatness, the conquest of foreign nations or invaders, human achievements, which are shown dramatically. So it is certainly different from Romance which is more focused on love. Romance is more focused on a human achievement. The word Romanticism was first used in Germany in the 1770s by art critics, namely August and Friedrich who wrote a critical book entitled “Romantische Poesie” or Romantic Poetry.
According to Isaiah Berlin in his book entitled “The Roots of Romanticism”, explains that Romanticism is a new spirit and restlessness, preoccupation with an ever-changing state of inner consciousness, an unlimited and undefined longing for a movement and eternal change.
Romanticism is one of the schools that emphasizes the emotional element in a work by building a dramatic, theatrical image and an atmosphere like in a dream. Romanticism really emphasizes emotion, imagination, and also the idea of returning to the inevitability of history and nature. Not only that, Romanticism has also become a form of resistance to neoclassical art which is bound by norms, always balanced but static. The movement also attempted to distort social conventions, especially for the position of the aristocrats that existed at that time.
Why is it called Romanticism?
The movement or flow of Romanticism comes from the root word “Roman”. So, Romanticism means something romantic. Romance is a word from classical literature that tells about human greatness, human achievements, and the conquest of invaders that are shown in a dramatic way. In the field of Indonesian literature, this genre is also commonly called the romantic flow. This is to distinguish it from the term romantic.
Sometimes, most people call this flow the term Romanticism (from romantic). However, this is not correct because the two terms have different meanings. Although similar, in fact the two words have absolutely nothing in common. Therefore, the most appropriate term to refer to this school is Romanticism or Romanticism, not Romanticism.
History of Romanticism
The term Romanticism comes from the French, namely Roman which means story. It is true, in the style of Romanticism reflects the influence of French romance literature. Especially in describing the story of a very terrible tragedy, a dramatic and gripping event. Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual school that originated in Western Europe in the 18th century during the Industrial Revolution. Part of this school was a revolution against the nobility, politics, and social norms of the Enlightenment period and a reaction to the rationalization of nature in literature and the arts. The movement emphasizes strong emotions as a source of aesthetic experience, horror, and awe of what is experienced when one faces the sublime nature.
Romanticism has actually been preceded by several similar schools in the mid-18th century which can be called the era of Pre-Romanticism. In that era was a new appreciation of medieval romance, where the Romanticism school finally got its name. However, among the “Romantic” trends, there are some arts that focus more on stories or adventure stories of knights that focus on individual heroism and on the mysterious and exotic.
The history of the emergence of Romanticism was influenced by the industrial revolution which began to leave the natural world and was also destructive to the environment. There are so many artists who reject industrialization practices which are considered to have little regard for the negative impacts they have on the natural environment. Although it has not been categorized as modern art, Romanticism has fought against the classical art movements that were already established before. Romanticism has also begun to explore aesthetic forms that are not only looking for the beauty of an object. However, Romanticism seeks to explore the great noble value of a subject, as a substitute for beauty and physical beauty.
In addition, Romanticism is a movement that continues Neoclassicism, but at the same time reacts to and also opposes classicalism. The pioneer of Romanticism is Theodore Gericault through one of his most famous works, Raft Medusa. Later on, Romanticism continued to be an art movement that ran away from the realities of life, namely working on an ideal and mysterious world using rational academic techniques.
The presence of Romanticism was against the neoclassical art flow that had existed for decades in France. Followers of Romanticism oppose Neoclassicism for a variety of reasons, including:
a. Neoclassical is too rational in its work
b. Neoclassical presents classic story themes as a mirror of noble life
c. Neoclassical does not show the role of personal elements
While the flow of Romanticism is just the opposite, namely:
a. Working through an emotional approach
b. Presenting more themes of mystery world life stories, romance stories, and also exotic themes such as stories from China, Islam, and Africa
c. More highlighting the role of personal feelings of an artist, for example in terms of dynamic composition and color elements with dark and light dramatized.
Characteristics of the Romantic Flow
Romanticism cannot be identified by a single technique, style and attitude, but has uniform common characteristics. Here are some features of the Romanticism stream, among others:
a. Imaginative: Although still realistic or without fantasy, the scenes in Romanticism tend to look more theatrical and not everyday scenes. To create such a scene, it takes a high power of imagination.
b. Subjective: The creation of a work of art is considered as a self-expression of an artist.
c. Using a fairly high emotional intensity.
d. Ambience and imagery have a dreamlike quality.
e. Describe strong, non-literal feelings or use symbols and imagery.
Types of Romanticism
The following are types of Romanticism that are important to understand:
a. Romantic Literature
Romanticism in literary works uses many recurring themes regarding the theme of revival or criticism of the past, the cult of “sensibility” with an emphasis on women and children, isolation of narrators or artists, respect for nature, and supernatural elements. Romantic literature tends to be personal, intense, and depicts more emotion than has ever been seen in some literature that appears in classical or neoclassical literature.
Below are some of the Romanticism writers, namely:
Edgar Allan Poe
In the field of fine arts, Romanticism first appeared in a landscape painting in the 1760s. At that time, British artists began to turn to Gothic-themed landscapes and architecture. Many Romanticist artists used religious and supernatural themes as objects of their paintings, as did the famous painter and writer named William Blake.
Figures of Romanticism and Their Works and Analysis
The following are some influential figures in the development of Romanticism along with examples of their work and analysis.
1. Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya was a Romanticist artist who came from Spain and was considered the most important in the late 18th century. Throughout his career, Goya has immortalized history through his paintings. Goya is also often referred to as the last Old Masters and the first modern painter. Besides often painting history, he also often paints portraits with contemporary nuances, which means he has left the tradition of the neoclassical school.
The painting above is an example of a historical event described by Francisco Goya. By that time, Goya had witnessed the French occupation of Spain in 1808. His attempts to overthrow the Spanish empire from Madrid led to widespread rebellion. The rebellion took place from May 1 to 2, 1808. Finally, Goya immortalized the tragedy through a painting which he did not witness in person. Goya only knew the information through other people’s talk, then described it with the imagination he had in mind. The painting is one example of how romanticist artists work with high imagination and depict it in a dramatic way through a fierce battle scene.
2. J.M.W Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner was an English artist known for his expressive coloring techniques, imaginative landscapes, and dramatic drawings. So it can be easily understood that he is an artist who wing Romanticism. Turner’s paintings that are best known by the public are seascapes. J.M.W Turner is an artist born in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London. He comes from a fairly simple lower middle class family. Turner lived in London all his life, retaining his country accent and retaining the low profile of his popular days.
Turner himself had studied at the Royal Academy of Arts in 1789. While studying there, he also served as a teacher of architectural drawings or drafters. Tuner then opened his own gallery in 1804 and became a professor at the Royal Academy in 1807, then taught until 1828. He loved to travel around Europe from 1802 and came home with many sketches of the sights he saw along the way.
Examples of Romanticism in Fishermen at Sea and its Analysis
The painting above is the first painting to be exhibited by Turner at the Royal Academy. The moonlit view was one of the trendsetters of nightscapes in the 18th century. The contrasting moonlight can’t be matched by the flickering lanterns. In the painting, Turner seems to want to emphasize that the power possessed by nature cannot be matched by humans.
The waves that look unsettled give more tension to the atmosphere in the painting. Not only that, in the background of the painting there is also a silhouette of a rock that was feared by the fishermen at that time, because the rock was very dangerous and often took its toll, especially in a dark night setting.
3. Caspar David Friedrich
Caspar David Friedrich was a German romantic landscape painter in the 19th century. Friedrich was one of the most influential German painters of his time. He is also the most important figure in the history of Romanticism. Not only that, Friedrich is also famous for his allegorical or universally symbolic landscape paintings, such as fables, animal stories that symbolize human behavior. Friedrich’s paintings generally present a contemplative figure in a landscape faced with mist in the morning, dark at night, barren trees and ancient ruins.
Friedrich’s main interest is the contemplation of nature in the world. His often symbolic work attempts to convey subjective and emotional responses to nature. Generally, Friedrich’s paintings will place the human presence in a small perspective in the midst of a large scene. According to historian Christopher Murray, this perspective refers to the audience’s view of their metaphysical dimensions.
Examples of Romanticism Wanderer above a Sea of Fog and its Analysis
Wanderer above a Sea of Fog presents a man holding a cane, standing on a rock overlooking a rocky and misty stretch of hill. The man’s hair was blowing in the wind in front of the sky which was full of white clouds and was difficult to distinguish from the fog. Then the background of the painting is also very foggy and makes the mountain behind it almost invisible.
Friedrich described the landscape he painted as a sea of fog. This is an example of the thinking style of romanticist artists who always use symbolism and parables in their paintings.
The painting above can produce an interpretation as follows:
Humans are creatures that are nothing compared to the world that is very wide and full of mysteries as has been described in the painting of the sea of mist above. However, that doesn’t stop humans with all their wits (wearing warm clothes and sticks) from exploring the world. Although many obstacles are seen everywhere. When man contemplates the vast sea of fog that lies before him, he does not know what lies ahead. We can’t predict all that, humans can only see small clues that are behind the fog.