Negotiation Objectives: Definition, Terms and Stages

Negotiation Objectives Definition, Terms and Stages

Nikereact.orgIn various communication activities, especially those for business purposes, of course you often hear the word negotiation. Yes, negotiation or bargaining is often done to reach an agreement between two or more people.

Bargaining is usually done because there is something that has not been accepted by both parties. So there needs to be bargaining so that both parties can accept a good decision.

It turns out that in order to run smoothly this negotiation process also has certain stages. If you want to learn more about it, try to listen to this article until it’s finished.

Definition of Negotiation According to Expert Figures

Negotiation Objectives Definition, Terms and Stages

Negotiation is a bargaining process carried out by several people in order to reach a common decision. This process is a good way of negotiating to talk about something in a good way, it can be to negotiate the price, quantity, terms, or quality of something.

In some cases, this bargaining process can also be mediated by a third party called a negotiator. This party will be the mediator between the negotiating parties, and usually this third party already has special abilities in the field of negotiation. The definition of negotiation according to experts is as follows:

1. According to Oliver

Furthermore, the definition of negotiation according to Oliver is a transaction in which both parties will accept the decision and have the right to the agreed final outcome. Therefore, there is a need for a mutual give and take process so that both can produce mutually beneficial and agreed conclusions.

2. According to Robbins

Then according to Robbins, negotiation is a process in which two or more parties will exchange goods or services and try to make a cooperation agreement between the two.

4. According to McGuire

According to McGuire, negotiation is an interactive process carried out to reach agreement. The process will involve two or more parties who have different views but wish to unite them and reach a common resolution.

5. According to Casse

Then according to Casse, the notion of negotiation is a process that involves at least two parties with different perceptions, motivations, and needs and tries to agree on a matter for the common good.

6. According to Henry Kissinger

Finally, there is the notion of negotiation according to Henry, which states that negotiation is a process to combine conflicting positions into a general position, and is under a unanimous decision.

That was the meaning of negotiation according to some experts. So it can be concluded that negotiation is an interaction process carried out by two or more people with different thoughts and trying to reach a fair agreement for both.

Usually negotiations are carried out by those who have conflicting views, but want to solve problems together. So bargaining is done to get an agreement that can be agreed upon by both.

Terms and Features of Negotiation

When making a bargain, there are several conditions that must be met. This condition will determine whether the activities carried out by a person can be called negotiations or not. The first condition is that the negotiation process must be carried out by two or more people. If it is only carried out by one person or one party, then negotiations cannot take place. So, negotiations must be carried out by two parties with a minimum of two people.

As carried out by two business parties, negotiations between traders, between sellers, or negotiations between institutions. To be sure, the bargaining must be done by at least two parties.

Then the second negotiation condition is carried out if the two parties concerned do not find a match for something that must be agreed upon. Therefore, this bargaining was carried out in order to find an agreement on the existing problems. The result to be achieved is an agreement that is mutually beneficial and can be accepted by both.

In addition to the conditions that must be met, the negotiation process can also be identified through the following characteristics:

  1. Involves two parties, for example the seller and the buyer.
  2. The issues to be negotiated have the same theme.
  3. There is cooperation between the two parties who want to negotiate.
  4. Both parties have the same goal, namely concretizing problems that are still abstract.

Purpose and Benefits of Negotiating

Bargaining or negotiation is certainly done with a specific purpose. Without a clear goal, the conversation will have no end. So, both parties should have a common goal before negotiations begin. That way, there will be clarity on where the conversation is going. The general objectives of the negotiation are:

  1. To obtain a mutually agreed agreement
  2. Reduce and describe the difference in portions and also conflicts that occur between two or more parties
  3. Unite the opinions of all parties involved so that the final decision can be mutually beneficial (known as a win-win solution).
  4. Solving problems and finding solutions to problems experienced by two or more negotiating parties
  5. Overcoming and adjusting the differences between the two negotiating parties so that they get something from
  6. the other party without coercion.

In addition to having a clear goal, negotiating also has benefits. Especially for business people who need mutually beneficial deals. So that when there is something that is not in accordance with personal and company desires, you can immediately resolve it by negotiating.

This method is very powerful and important to do, so that the business continues to run according to the plans that have been made previously. The following are some of the benefits that can be obtained from negotiating:

  • Creating cooperation between parties and achieving their respective goals.
  • Provide an opportunity for both parties to understand each other’s needs and desires, so that there is no misunderstanding or suspicion of the other party’s goals
  • Creating an agreement that will be mutually beneficial and has been agreed upon by both parties without any coercion from any direction
  • Generate positive interactions between the two negotiating parties, so that the network of cooperation that is carried out can continue to run and can even reach a wider network.

Stages in Conducting Negotiations

It would be better when negotiations are carried out with various preparations. When the activity takes place, of course you have to speak convincingly and confidently. So that both parties can accept any opinion that is conveyed properly.

In addition, it is also important to consider what the other party’s intentions in the negotiation are. So that it is easier for you to give advice and make mutually beneficial decisions. Then what are the stages that need to be passed to carry out a good negotiation, here are the stages:

1. Preparation with careful planning

The first important stage in negotiations is preparation and planning. Preparation is important, especially preparing the various data needed. Both the company’s own data and data that can be obtained from a second party. This data will be needed to convey various arguments during the bargaining process. This includes considering the arguments to be presented.

In addition to preparing the material, you also need to prepare mentally so that you can debate and discuss healthily with other parties. Don’t forget to convey anything wisely so that the other party can accept it openly.

2. Determine the rules in negotiations

It is important that the rules here are made so that the negotiation process does not take place in a complicated manner, let alone get off track. The rules set limits on who will be involved in the negotiations, and what issues will be discussed. With the rules, all parties will be more flexible in arguing and will convey something according to what has been agreed.

3. Giving an explanation

After the rules are made, then the negotiation process will take place. Here, all parties need to provide an explanation of their respective wishes. In order to support each side’s position, they will be given the opportunity to convey everything as clearly as possible. So that there will be no misunderstanding between the two when the decision is about to be implemented.

4. The process of bargaining and problem solving

Fourth is the bargaining process and problem solving. This is where the essence of negotiation is, namely to find solutions to problems that become obstacles for both parties. Here both parties must be asked to focus on problems and interests, not on people or positions, in order to find solutions that are right for both. Seriousness is also needed here, so that the negotiation process goes well and finds common ground or solutions that are mutually beneficial to both parties.

5. Closing and implementation

Lastly is the closing and implementation process. At this stage everything will be decided together. So, at the end of this decision making must pay attention to the following things:

  • all documents have been agreed upon by all parties involved
  • re-examine the points of agreement that will be decided
  • all stipulations and agreements must be reiterated clearly
  • both parties are required to re-read before signing all the documents that are agreed upon by all parties who have negotiated.

These are the stages of negotiation that are important to pay attention to. Every step in a negotiation needs to be done with care and consideration. So the results will be much better for both parties. If the negotiations go smoothly, then the mutually beneficial agreement will give pleasure to both parties.

Bargaining or negotiation is something important. Because the results will determine in which direction decisions and agreements will be taken. Therefore, when you want to negotiate, you need careful preparation. Likewise, during negotiations, you need to pay attention to the following rules and important things so that negotiations run smoothly.

If both parties who make a bargain respect each other and respect each other, then the final decision will be mutually beneficial for both. Well, the important things that you need to pay attention to when negotiating are as follows:

1. Make sure the preparation is done

Preparations must be made to deal with various situations in the negotiation process. This includes our knowledge of each issue that will be discussed. Don’t let the process take place, you don’t know where the conversation is going.

For example, when there will be an event and want to negotiate with the sponsors. Then you have to understand very well what the event will be sponsored and the ins and outs and details of the event. So that clients will also not hesitate if they will accept an offer to cooperate.

2. Understand the target type

The second thing is to understand the type of target you will be negotiating with. You have to understand who will be the interlocutor in the negotiation room. Find out where he is from, what position he is in, what type of person he is, what his personality is, or what his preferences are. If you want to win over your opponent, you need to understand them first.

So before starting negotiations, you can seek knowledge about the target through various platforms, especially through social media. Your knowledge of this type of target will be very helpful in dealing with everything.

In addition, you can also get closer personally so that the conversation is more fluid and easy to do. If the other party is comfortable with you, the negotiation process will have a much higher chance of succeeding.

3. Have a discussion, not a sale

According to the definition of negotiation above, this process is a time for bargaining and making joint decisions. So, when negotiating, you must be able to position yourself for discussion. Listen to what the other party has to say and digest it.

Then adjust their opinions with the wishes and goals to be achieved. So, not selling, but discussion. Negotiate something that is not pleasing to both parties, and do not indoctrinate the other party so that the agreed outcome will be beneficial for both parties.

4. Win-win Solution

The four results of the agreement must be a win-win solution, meaning to get a mutually beneficial solution for both parties. So have a good discussion, convey your opinion politely so that the other party can accept it. Try to find other alternatives when the opinion conflicts with the opinion of the other party. Then discuss it. That way the outcome of the agreement will be mutually beneficial to both parties.

5. Be a good listener

During the bargaining process, you must be a good listener. Listen a lot to what the other party has to say. Because clients will be happy when they are heard.

That is, by listening to the other party, they will feel more valued. In addition, by listening, you will also better understand what the client really wants. So when talking, you already understand which direction the conversation should take, in order to get an agreement that is beneficial for both.

In addition to some of the important things above, you should also know that there are several types of negotiations. There are formal negotiations carried out to reach an agreement through legal channels, then informal negotiations carried out without the need for legal channels. Then there are negotiations with intermediaries and negotiations without intermediaries.

The mediator will be tasked with being a neutral party during negotiations. Then there are still collaboration negotiations, domination negotiations, accommodation negotiations, and also lose-lose negotiations. For the last one, the lose-lose negotiation is a negotiation process carried out to not continue the conflict or new conflicts. So all parties will agree to resolve the issue with a cool head.

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