Nikereact.org – Every human being has needs that must be met, right? To meet these needs, humans carry out economic activities whether working, running a business, trading, and others. What needs must we fulfill? Well, this time we will discuss the theory of needs in depth.
Needs, if interpreted freely, are all things that humans need in order to maintain and develop their lives. The fulfillment of these needs can be achieved by achieving prosperity. Of course, everyone’s needs are different depending on natural conditions, place of residence, individual characteristics and characteristics, lifestyle, religion, and culture.
The basic principle of needs is the desire that is owned by humans. If one need has been met, another new need will emerge. It can be said that humans have tiered needs.
Human needs are many. Starting from primary needs which include clothing, food and drink, and housing. Now the primary needs are increasing education and health services. In addition, secondary and tertiary needs such as motorized vehicles, communication services, gadgets, and others. In fact, not only concrete needs, humans also need self-existence, motivation, respect, respect, being considered, and so on.
Needs are divided into several types, namely based on the intensity of use, nature, fulfillment time, subject, and socio-cultural. Each type has a few more needs.
Based on the intensity of use, needs are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary needs. Based on the nature, needs are divided into physical and spiritual needs. Based on the time of fulfillment, needs can be divided into needs now, in the future, uncertain time, and forever or all the time. Based on the subject, needs are divided into individual and group needs. And according to socio-cultural, needs are divided into social and psychological needs.
Various Needs Theory According to Experts
The importance of needs and their fulfillment moves experts to generate theories that explain needs. We will discuss these theories in more depth in the explanation below. But before we start, please note that the theories below may complement each other, or they may contradict each other.
1. Maslow’s Theory of Needs
Among the existing needs theories, Maslow’s theory of needs is one of the most popular theories. Many academics or writers use Maslow’s theory of needs when talking about needs.
It was Abraham Maslow, an expert in psychology, who came up with this theory. The American psychologist who is also famous for his theory of self-actualization psychology has arranged a hierarchy (level) of needs into five levels. The levels are arranged in a pyramid-shaped scheme.
Maslow’s hypothesis states that a person will try to fulfill a level of need if the level of needs below it has been met. For example, if someone is thirsty, then he will tend to look for ways to satisfy his thirst and thirst. He can withstand hunger for a longer time because the need for water is greater than the need for water. If the need at a level is not met or not satisfied, the person can return to the level below it.
Maslow stated, fulfillment of needs can be achieved in two ways. First, motivation is due to a deficiency or can be called deficiency motivation. This motivation encourages people to overcome problems by realizing that there are conditions that are not ideal and must immediately rise from these conditions.
Second, motivation is due to the desire to develop or can be called growth motivation. This motivation encourages a person to develop and grow so as to improve his welfare. In order to achieve prosperity, one must increase one’s capacity.
In his theory of needs, Maslow explained in detail about human needs. For more details, we see Maslow’s explanation below.
a. Physiological Needs
Physiological needs are needs that are at the lowest level that must be met by a person such as eating, drinking, breathing, and other biological needs such as sleep, a smooth metabolic system, and others.
Physiological needs are basic needs that absolutely must be met because these needs are very basic needs. Without the fulfillment of these needs, humans will not be able to carry out life activities smoothly.
b. Security Needs
The need that is on the second level after physiological needs is the need for security. A person needs a sense of security so that he can carry out activities that support him to meet other needs.
Examples of the need for security include protection, freedom from fear, away from threats, stability, and security from disturbance. In this case, traffic regulations, work safety regulations, health protocols, social norms, religious norms, and customary norms exist to fulfill a sense of security in living life. Thus, the danger posed by accidents, war, crime, epidemics, riots, and others can be minimized.
This need for security cannot be fully met one hundred percent, therefore this need is different from physiological needs. Security needs cannot completely eliminate the fear of threats such as natural disasters or harmful actions of others.
c. Belongingness and Social Needs
Social needs are in the third level after the need for security. After the need for security is met, humans need a sense of belonging, affection, and social interaction. This need arises automatically.
This need includes the desire to interact with other people. As we understand humans are social creatures. This means that humans cannot live alone and always need other people in their lives. During social interaction, someone wants to be loved.
d. Self Esteem Needs
Self-esteem needs are advanced needs. If social needs have been met, humans need self-esteem needs. This self-esteem need demands self-confidence, self-fulfillment, strength, confidence, and self-respect.
The need for self-esteem is divided into two types. First, the need for achievement, the ability to provide confidence, independence, freedom, authority, and life. Second, the need for recognition, respect, appreciation, status, and good name.
e. Self-Actualization Needs
The need for self-actualization is the highest level of need. And as Maslow’s theory of needs, this fifth level of needs can only be met if the four previous levels of needs have been met.
This self-actualization need encourages a person to bring out his full potential into works. How to bring out this potential by actualizing themselves on the things they like.
2. Gardner Murphy’s Theory of Needs
Gardner Murphy is an American psychologist who specializes in social and personality psychology and parapsychology. Murphy explained, human needs are divided into four groups. The four groups are basic needs, needs for activity, sensory needs, and the need to resist.
The basic needs referred to in Murphy’s theory of needs are needs related to biology or important parts of the human body. For example, eat to meet energy, drink to quench thirst, and air to breathe.
The need for activity provides an understanding that humans need activity to keep moving. As one of the characteristics of moving creatures, humans need to move.
Sensory needs are human needs related to receiving a response or the surrounding environment. For example, the need for color in life, sound, music, and other needs that have an orientation with the surrounding environment.
The need to refuse means that humans have a need to reject all things that are not in accordance with their will. For example, humans need to reject pain, fear, lies, threats, and so on.
3. Virginia Henderson’s Theory of Needs
The full name of the originator of this theory is Virginia Avenel Henderson. She is a nurse from the United States. Virginia initially entered nursing because of her interest in caring for soldiers who were injured in World War I.
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This intention led him to define nursing and its goals. Through her profession, Virginia explains that the goal of nursing is to work independently to provide health services to clients. So that the client can return to activities independently within a short period of time from the start of treatment.
Virginia considers that a human being is made up of four components. The four components include biological, psychological, cultural, and spiritual. Based on these four components, Virginia Henderson describes 14 basic human needs.
The first need is to be able to breathe normally. Second, eat and drink enough. Third, urinate normally. Fourth, maintain motion and maintain the desired position. Fifth, adequate and quality sleep and rest.
While the sixth need, humans need the right clothes according to their personal and conditions. Seventh, keeping the body temperature within the normal range and choosing clothes that suit the condition. Eighth, maintain personal hygiene and take care of appearance. Ninth, ensure that he is safe from harm or endangering others.
Then the tenth need is to establish good communication with others through expressing emotions, needs, expressing opinions, and expressing concerns. Eleventh, you can worship according to your beliefs calmly and comfortably. Twelfth, work in order to meet the needs of life. Thirteenth, recreation or refreshing. And lastly, fourteenth, fulfill their curiosity, live a normal life, and get health services and facilities easily.
4. Henry Murray’s Theory of Needs
This need theory was coined by Henry Murray, a psychologist from the United States. Murray is known to have taught at Harvard University for more than 30 years. He is famous for the theory of personality psychology. Although he has a bachelor’s degree in medicine, a master’s degree in biochemistry, and a doctorate in biochemistry, he is a master of psychology.
When he taught at a school, the government called him to conduct a selection by interview method for soldiers who wanted to join the second world war. In 1930, he and Christiana Morgan, who would become his wife, developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
According to Murray, human needs are divided into three major groups, namely:
1. Motivated needs for power, wealth, achievement, knowledge, prestige, and the like.
These needs include the need for achievement, achievement or gain, aggression, order, overcoming weakness, dominance, interpretation, recognition, and understanding.
2. Needs motivated by love, admiration, sympathy, dependence, and affection.
This type of need includes the need for affiliation, respect, nurturing, sexual satisfaction, and help in times of distress.
3. Needs motivated by the desire for independence, stimulation, change, and play.
This type of need includes the need for autonomy (the need to be free and independent from others), change, adventure, travel, existence, and play.
5. Malcolm S. Knowles . Needs Theory
Malcolm Shepherd Knowles is a well-known adult educator. In educating adults, he adopted the andragogy method of Alexander Kapp who was a teacher from Germany.
Andragogy is an art that practices science to teach adults. In andragogy, adult participants are considered to have a need for independence and self-direction.
Thus, students who are now adults learn independently who rely on themselves. The teacher only directs how to direct the interaction to the participants. Therefore, such a system is suitable for non-formal education.
Knowles, with this capacity, describes that humans have several needs, namely:
1. Physical Needs
Physical needs are the easiest needs to be accepted by the five senses. In practice in the world of education, physical needs are related to sight, hearing, and rest.
Vision will be less comfortable if the student’s writing is too small or difficult to read. The hearing of students will be disturbed if there is a chair that is shifted, causing a creak of friction between the chair and the floor. And rest is needed if students are tired.
2. Growing Needs
In his theory of needs, Knowles said that the need for development is a basic need for every human being. A person who does not have the opportunity to develop feels that he has no hope in life, or at least feels that his life is useless.
The need to develop becomes a strong motivating factor for adults to be willing to learn and increase knowledge. Education basically makes a person to develop in terms of knowledge, skills, discipline, interests, talents, and passion for experimentation. By knowing new things from the learning process, a person can feel the development within him.
3. The Need for Security
Knowles’ sense of security is a sense of security in terms of physical and psychological. A person tends to seek safe conditions. If these safe conditions are not guaranteed, someone will withdraw.
4. The Need for New Experiences
The search for new experiences discussed this time may conflict with the need for security. This is because new experiences sometimes invite risks that negate safe conditions.
Routines that are usually done repeatedly and continuously can cause boredom and saturation. If left unchecked, this boredom can lead a person to be indifferent, impulsive, and irritable. Therefore, looking for new experiences needs to be done. By seeking new experiences, a person will visit new places, meet new friends, new ideas, new ways, and so on.
5. The Need to Be Liked
An individual has a tendency to be liked. So he will try all kinds of ways to be liked by others.
6. The Need for Recognition
Recognition from others can give a person a sense of worth. Because of this need, a person is driven to get a position in his group or society so that he gets status and attention from others.
For those of you who want to know more about basic human needs, this book is for you.